Meal planning is frequently a crucial component of the management and recovery from eating disorders. They are important in giving structure and guaranteeing that the person gets the type and amount of food they require. They are created by certified dietitians as part of a comprehensive treatment plan. This article will go over the principles of meal planning as well as a few other kinds of meal plans that are employed for the treatment of eating disorders.
What is an eating disorder and how does it impact a person’s health?
What Is an Anorexia Nervosa?
Anorexia nervosa is characterized by abnormally low body weight, an obsession with weight gain, a propensity to eat sufficient amounts of food to sustain a weight and/or growth trajectory, and a distorted perception of one's body. There are two varieties of anorexia nervosa, and both bingeing and purging behaviors can occur. The condition has been identified in people as young as five years old, with the median age of onset now lowering to 12 years. Anorexia nervosa can be fatal, and heart problems and suicide are frequently linked to it.
What triggers nervosa anorexia?
Like all eating disorders, anorexia nervosa develops over time as a result of a complex combination of genetic, physiological, and environmental factors. Contrary to popular belief, families and supportive communities are not to fault. Indeed, it is difficult to single out a reason for the problem. In fact, they are frequently the best ally for rehabilitation. Many people have a genetic propensity for anorexia nervosa, which may or may not be triggered during the course of their lives by environmental factors.
- Anorexia can be caused by a variety of biological elements, including heredity, altered brain circuitry, and weakened food-related circuits. Changes in the physiological mechanisms that control hunger and fullness signals can also result from malnutrition.
- Environmental elements include cultural demands to meet aesthetic standards, comments and taunting about one's weight, and media messages that can raise anorexia risk in people who are predisposed to it.
- Psychological elements like stress, anxiety, sadness, low self-esteem, obsessive-compulsive tendencies, and trauma are some of the contributing elements that could cause anorexia in a sensitive demographic group.
If you suspect someone may have anorexia nervosa, what should you check for?
Knowing the telltale signs and symptoms of anorexia will make you a better advocate for early intervention and boost recovery rates for anorexia nervosa. Body checks, severely limiting one's food intake, and/or excessive food rigidity that permits only little amounts of particular foods are all warning signs to look out for. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and social phobia are examples of associated conditions, or "comorbidities."
i. People who suffer from anorexia frequently have a distorted view of their bodies and a strong fear of putting on weight.
ii. Anorexia can be identified by extreme dietary restriction, obsessive calorie monitoring, routine body and weight checks, and excessive or compulsive activity.
iii. In anorexics, hiding or tossing away food and/or missing meals are common behaviors.
iv. Along with a strong aversion to food or a particular food, anorexia frequently coexists with rigidity or obsessiveness.
v. Among the physical signs of anorexia include cold intolerance, hair loss, and skin and nail discolouration.
What dangers might anorexia nervosa pose?
Extreme medical and physiological effects of anorexia nervosa may or may not go away completely following recovery.
- In addition to major gastrointestinal problems like constipation, bloating, and gastroparesis, anorexia can cause serious health hazards such as electrolyte imbalances, congestive heart failure, and abrupt death.
- Osteoporosis, quick bruising, and the development of fine white hair (lanugo) all over the body are conditions that are frequently linked to anorexia.
- Anorexia can make it difficult for a person to manage their impulses and make sound decisions.
Anorexia can make it difficult for a person to manage their impulses and make sound decisions.
Additionally, anorexia can affect a person's sexual health and lead to amenorrhea, trouble conceiving, and an increased risk for miscarriage, low birth weight, and postpartum depression. It can also reduce the frequency of erections and nocturnal emissions.
Bulimia Nervosa: What is it?
Recurrent binge eating, purging, and an obsession with one's physical appearance are all traits of bulimia. In an effort to manage their body weight or shape, those who have the disorder frequently eat a lot of food in a short period of time before purging. Self-induced vomiting, improper use of laxatives or diuretics, improper insulin administration, and extreme exercise are all examples of purging.
Bulimia Warning Signs and Symptoms
Bulimic individuals are frequently "normal" or slightly "above average" weights, therefore they may appear "healthy" on the exterior. Although a person's weight cannot diagnose bulimia by itself, there are other symptoms to watch out for.
Bulimia warning indicators could include:
i. Consistently consuming a lot of food
ii. Purging habits include vomiting, using laxatives, or overworking out
iii. Obsession with physical shape, weight, and size
iv. Uncontrolled eating, often in response to unpleasant situations or emotions
v. after eating, immediately using the restroom
vi. feeling nervous or depressed
vii. Skin ulcers
viii. Vomiting-induced swollen cheeks and burst blood vessels in the eyes
Effects of Bulimia Nervosa on the Body
Like many eating disorders, bulimia nervosa has both short- and long-term health effects. Without medical assistance, this sickness can be extremely harmful to the body and possibly be fatal. However, it is feasible to stop these health impacts from becoming lifelong problems with early intervention and therapy.
Effects on Teeth
The frequent self-inflicted vomiting that bulimics frequently engage in can weaken teeth enamel as a result of exposure to stomach acid. As a result, teeth may alter in size, shape, or length in addition to becoming discolored. Dentists frequently are the first healthcare professionals to identify the symptoms of the illness since the destruction of teeth is visible (Hague, 2010). This is one of the reasons it is crucial for all healthcare professionals to be aware of the symptoms of an eating disorder.
Gums and soft tissues in the mouth can potentially be impacted in addition to teeth. Self-inflicted vomiting may result in sores on the inside of the cheeks, the back of the throat, and the roof of the mouth.
As was already mentioned, bulimia involves frequent binges and purges, which frequently result in severe nutritional deprivation. A dip in body temperature can result from malnutrition and famine. The face and body may develop lanugo hair as the body tries to warm itself. In addition to developing lanugo hair, a person may also experience brittle nail growth, pale complexion, and thinning hair on their scalp (Strumia, 2005). Bulimia can cause frequent vomiting, which can also cause enlarged glands and blood vessel ruptures in the eyes.
Effects on the Digestive System
The gastrointestinal system is another area of the body impacted by bulimia due to frequent vomiting or improper use of laxatives or diuretics. The digestive tract can get damaged by frequent vomiting and laxative use, which can potentially lead to esophageal rips, rectal prolapse, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and other issues (GI Alliance, 2020).
Additionally, binge eating might harm the digestive tract. The intestinal track may become difficult or impossible to empty if the stomach is overstuffed. According to Mahoney (2017), this may lead to stomach rupture, which may be fatal. Those who abuse laxatives may also develop a dependence on them and experience persistent constipation as a result.
Effects on the Endocrine System
The endocrine system, which regulates hormone production, can be impacted by bulimia. Numerous conditions, such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, type 2 diabetes, hypothermia, and others, can be brought on by hormonal imbalance. Menstruating people may also miss their period. The body's messenger, the endocrine system, can affect every organ and every function when it's not working properly.
Bulimia is a sophisticated mental disorder. Due to hunger and deprivation, bulimia patients may have trouble focusing, efficiently processing information and reasoning. Someone who is deficient in vitamins and nutrients may also become agitated and temperamental. Additionally, a person's concern with constantly tracking their food, exercise, and weight can prohibit them from doing the activities they enjoy or from spending time with their loved ones.
There are numerous problems associated with eating disorders, some of which are grave. The likelihood of major problems increases with the severity or duration of the eating disorder. These may consist of:
- Significant health issues.
- Both anxiety and depression.
- Suicidal ideas or actions.
- Issues with development and progress.
- Social and interpersonal issues.
- Disorders caused by drug use.
- School and work-related difficulties.
What Is a Meal Plan?
Meal plans are frequently utilized in fad diets, but they serve a fundamentally different purpose when used to treat an eating issue. First off, meal plans for fad diets are frequently not customized and are not designed by a Registered Dietitian. A registered dietitian develops meal plans for people in recovery based on their unique needs.
Meal plans in recovery offer a framework to fit personal requirements while enabling versatility and a diversity of food kinds, in contrast to fad diets that set diet culture standards, frequently exclude important nutrients, and perpetuate shame. They are additive in nature and put an emphasis on meeting nutritional demands rather than being restrictive. Meal plans in recovery not only provide resources to use as an alternative when necessary, but they also lay the foundation for future eating habits.
The degree of organization might change depending on what works best for each person. Some individuals need to follow a very specific exchange-based meal plan, while others may only need to adhere to an instinctive eating-based strategy. There is no better or worse form of meal plan than any other. It's crucial to offer the proper amount of structure and support. Meal plans frequently change over time to reflect the person's progress in recovery.
In order to clarify the distinction between trendy diets and meal plans, it is crucial to stress that the objectives of rehabilitation meal plans ARE NOT:
- Getting in shape or maintaining weight
- To advocate for one food, vitamin, or food type above another
- To develop the "ideal healthy eater"
- To always stick to a diet
Let's move on to some various meal plans kinds now that we properly grasp why meal plans for people in recovery differ from non-medical diets.
Different Meal Plans
1. The Exchange System for (Eating Disorders)
Though the exchange types and quantities vary from organization to organization, the exchange-based meal plan is the most popular meal plan type used in the eating disorder area. The regularity of meals, as well as quantities and balance, are the primary points of this regimen.
A structure of exchange lists is used to organize this meal planning system. Because of their nutritional similarity, the foods on these lists are grouped together. Grains, protein, fruits, vegetables, calcium/milk, lipids, and sweets are among the seven exchange lists. The word "other" is given as the eighth category and is typically used to describe additions to the meal plan. This exchange process has been shown to be crucial in aiding in the re-regulation of eating and supporting weight stabilization or restoration. Dietitians may choose to exclude nutrient data associated with the exchange list while utilizing the system since that could be upsetting for someone in recovery from an eating disorder.
2. The One Plate at a Time Approach.
The Plate-by-Plate Approach was created by Registered Dietitians as a supplement to meal planning for parents of young children and adolescents, but it can also be used for adults. The five food groups—grain/starch, vegetable/fruit, protein, fats, and dairy—are all included in this approach. There are two different visual plate models: one for weight stabilization and one for weight restoration. There are three crucial components to this kind of food plan:
i. Give parental control over all food-related decisions
ii. Use a 10-inch plate
iii. Place a priority on variety and early exposure to all foods (subject to parent education/nutrition counseling).
3. The Rule of Three
The Rule of 3 technique, which was also created by a Registered Dietitian, emphasizes regular meals while taking balance into account. It is divided into six major food groups: calcium, complex grains, carbs, proteins, fruits and vegetables, and lipids. This program is better suited for people who are moderately or severely malnourished or who have a high risk of developing refeeding syndrome. These rules explicitly make up the Rule of 3's:
i. Eat three meals and as many as three snacks each day.
ii. Eat from three different food categories at each meal and two during snacks.
iii. No longer than three hours should pass between meals.
4. Intuitive Eating
The intuitive eating meal plan approach is less regimented than the other meal plans we have covered and is based on listening to one's hunger and fullness cues. People can frequently continue using it after they have recovered from their eating disorders. To select when and how much to eat, intuitive eating involves re-connecting with the body's physiologic cues of hunger and fullness. Because people who are suffering from eating disorders frequently lose the ability to recognize their own hunger cues, this strategy requires a lot of effort.
Those who are having or recovering from an eating disorder must closely collaborate with an eating disorder specialist to determine the best way to change to this style while being careful not to mistakenly relapse into disordered patterns.
The right meal plan must be chosen for a person's rehabilitation in order to address malnutrition, provide structure, and confront disordered habits. We at Energy Meal Plan Dubai hope that this article has shed further light on some of the various meal plans utilized in recovery and their significance.